LPS activates JNK, p38 MAPK, JAK-STAT and NF-κB in microglia. BV2 cells were treated with LPS, and cell lysates were collected for Western blot analysis at the various times shown. LPS activated JNK (A, shown using a phospho specific antibody against phosphorylated JNK, p-JNK), the p38 MAPK ( p-p38) (B) and JAK-STAT, as evidenced by phosphorylated JAK2 ( p-JAK2) (C). NF-κB was also activated as shown by increased phosphorylation of its p65 subunit (D), decreasing levels of its inhibitor protein IκB (E) and increased nuclear accumulation of its p65 subunit (F). Shown are representative blots, plus bar graphs for quantitative comparison using densitometry (A -F). Data are mean ± SEM, n = 3-5 independent experiments. *P < 0.05. Optical densitometric values were normalized to β-actin as a housekeeping control, and are expressed as percentage of controls.
Kacimi et al. Journal of Inflammation 2011 8:7 doi:10.1186/1476-9255-8-7