LPS induces BV2 cell death. Compared to control BV2 cells (A, C, E), LPS exposure for 24 hours led to increased cell death in a dose dependent manner (B, D, F, G). Fewer numbers of BV2 cells (B) are observed after LPS (1 μg/mL) treatment compared to those given vehicle (A) (trypan blue stain). Calcein stained cells reveal viable cells in green (C, D). Double staining with calcein (live cells in green) and ethidium homodimer (nuclear stain of dead cells in red) (E, F). LPS induces generation of iNOS and NO in a dose dependent manner in microglia. BV2 cells were incubated in vehicle (CTL) or LPS for 24 h. Thereafter, cells were harvested, and lysates were used for Western blot. Nitrite levels, a measure of NO generation, was determined from supernatants. LPS reduced BV2 cell viability (G, n = independent observations) and increased NO generation (H, n = 12 independent observations) in a dose dependent manner. iNOS protein was similarly increased with LPS concentration (I). Shown is a representative blot. *P < 0.05 versus control.
Kacimi et al. Journal of Inflammation 2011 8:7 doi:10.1186/1476-9255-8-7