Leishmania augments release of IL-1α, TNFα and IL-10 following LPS induction. Cells were incubated with 100 ng/ml LPS followed by L. major, L. amazonensis or latex beads at a parasite/bead: host cell ratio of 20:1 (indicated by blue, green and open bars, respectively). At 2 hr, 8 hr and 19 hr timepoints, culture supernatants were removed, centrifuged then assayed for cytokine expression by Bio-Plex assay as described in Methods. Media only, L. major alone, L. amazonensis alone, latex beads alone and LPS alone (black, gray, purple, brown and red bars, respectively) were used as controls. Data represented are averages of two independent replicate experiments, with error bars as denoted.
Lapara and Kelly Journal of Inflammation 2010 7:8 doi:10.1186/1476-9255-7-8