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Open Access Research

The anti-idiotypic antibody 1F7 stimulates monocyte interleukin-10 production and induces endotoxin tolerance

Tigran K Davtyan1, David A Poghosyan2, Anna G Sukiasyan3 and Michael D Grant4*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory of Immunology and Virology, “Armenicum” Research Center CJSC, Yerevan, Armenia

2 Institute of Molecular Biology NAS RA, Yerevan, Armenia

3 Institute of Epidemiology MH RA, Yerevan, Armenia

4 Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada

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Journal of Inflammation 2013, 10:14  doi:10.1186/1476-9255-10-14

Published: 5 April 2013

Abstract

Background

Pathogens that establish chronic infection elicit immune responses with suppressive cytokines dominating over pro-inflammatory cytokines. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection are associated with high levels of antiviral antibodies expressing a common idiotype specifically recognized by the 1F7 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The 1F7 mAb is a murine IgMκ antibody raised against immunoglobulin pooled from the plasma of multiple HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we investigated direct effects of the 1F7 mAb itself on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Methods

Isolated monocytes or PBMC from healthy controls were incubated with the 1F7 mAb or IgMκ mAb control. Cytokine production was measured in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10) were identified by subset depletion and intracellular flow cytometry. Endotoxin tolerance was assessed by exposing monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following 1F7 mAb or IgMκ mAb control pre-treatment and comparing tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in cell culture supernatants.

Results

The 1F7 mAb stimulated monocytes and CD36+ lymphocytes to produce IL-10 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Treatment of monocytes with 1F7 mAb also reduced their subsequent responsiveness to LPS stimulation.

Conclusions

Induction of antibodies expressing the 1F7 idiotype by chronic pathogens may facilitate IL-10 production and progression to chronic infection. Direct effects of IL-10 from human monocytes stimulated by 1F7-like antibodies, followed by monocyte transition to an alternatively activated phenotype illustrated by endotoxin tolerance, are two complementary features favouring a tolerogenic or non-responsive immunological environment.

Keywords:
Hepatitis C virus; Monocyte; Interleukin-10; Idiotype; Endotoxin tolerance